Cannabidiol (CBD) isolates are suddenly getting a lot of attention in the scientific and medical communities and rave reviews by patients. But what are they exactly?
By now, most people are familiar with CBD extracts, which typically come in the form of a capsule or tincture concentrate taken under the tongue. Most CBD extracts on the market today contain up to 80 different cannabinoids plus other plant materials such as oils and other phytonutrients. CBD Isolates are similar to common CBD oil extracts, but what sets them apart is the additional purification processes they undergo to essentially “isolate” the CBD molecules in their purest form. CBD isolate is a dry, crystalline form of CBD, purified to the extent that up to 99 percent of the oil and additional plant nutrients are removed.
While CBD is proving to be an effective treatment of inflammation, pain and a host symptoms correlating with neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or epilepsy, there are limitations on the immediacy and duration of its effectiveness, even at high doses. According to authors of a 2015 Israeli study on the efficacy of isolates who measured the efficacy and duration of effects of CBD extracted in ordinary processes.
The study, which charted efficacy over a 24-hour period, found that results follow a bell-shaped curve peaking at a 6-hour mark, regardless of the size of the dose. The study also charted the duration of efficacy of isolated CBD in exactly the same manner and observed that the isolates were more consistently effective over time and higher doses improved efficacy.
Overcoming the Bell‐Shaped Dose‐Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol
Abstract: Cannabidiol (CBD), a major constituent of Cannabis, has been shown to be a powerful anti‐in‐ flammatory and anti‐anxiety drug, without exerting a psychotropic effect. However, when given either intraperitoneally or orally as a purified product, a bell‐shaped dose‐response was observed, which limits its clinical use. In the present study, we have studied in mice the anti‐inflammatory and anti‐nociceptive activities of standardized plant extracts derived from the Cannabis sativa L., clone 202, which is highly enriched in CBD and hardly contains any psychoactive ingredients. In stark contrast to purified CBD, the clone 202 extract, when given either intraperitoneally or orally, provided a clear correlation between the anti‐inflammatory and anti‐nociceptive responses and the dose, with increasing responses upon increasing doses, which makes this plant medicine ideal for clinical uses. The clone 202 extract reduced zymosan‐induced paw swelling and pain in mice, and prevented TNFα production in vivo. It is likely that other components in the extract synergize with CBD to achieve the desired anti‐inflammatory action that may contribute to overcoming the bell‐shaped dose‐response of purified CBD. We therefore propose that Cannabis clone 202 (Avi‐ dekel) extract is superior over CBD for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
Citation: Gallily, R., Yekhtin, Z. and Hanuš, L.O. (2015) Overcoming the Bell‐Shaped Dose‐Response of Can‐ nabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 6, 75‐85. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/pp.2015.62010